HERBERT MATTER - MATTER

Why Matter Matters

«What distinguished Herbert from other photographers was that he had a vision. He wasn't interested in just documenting reality».
ALEX MATTER

«When he came to my loft to use my darkroom he worked for twelve hours straight. I always admired him for that.»
ROBERT FRANK

«He wasn't much of a talker. He talked without words.»
JORDAN MATTER

«To meet the man, to realize what a modest and unpretentious artist he was, was to realize the incredible influence he had on so many people.»
LORRAINE WILD

«It wasn't until Herbert Matter came to the New Haven Railroad that railroads began looking at their image as a part of the process.»
MARC FRATASSIO

«For someone like Herbert Matter, to have commercial success not just in one but in several professions is truly unique to this day.»
JESSICA HELFAND

«He really influenced a lot of people with his abstract photography.»
ELAINE LUSTIC COHEN

«He didn't say much. You know I talked to him for an hour and he just said "Yes" in the end. Very humbling experience.»
MASSIMO VIGNELLI

«Nothing had to be explained. You immediately see the power and impact of what he was doing visually or you miss it entirely.»
JOHN HILL

«It took me a while to realize that Matter was Swiss. His work is so much broader than the Müller-Brockmann, Armin Hofmann school of what we usually call the Swiss school.»
STEVE HELLER

«He was the one to see the potential of photography as a tool, as a graphic element in the work as a whole. He is the pioneer in that regard.»
KERRY WILLIAM PURCELL

Herbert Matter (1907-1984)

Herbert Matter was born in 1907 in Engelberg, a Swiss mountain village, where exposure to the treasure of one of the two finest medieval graphic art collections in Europe was unavoidable. In 1925, he attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Genva, but after two years, the allure of modernism beckoned him to Paris. There, the artist attended the Academie Moderne under the tutelage of Fernand Léger and Amédée Ozenfant. While the former became a close lifelong friend, both encouraged Matter to expand his artistic horizons.

In Europe during the late Twenties and early Thirties, the creative scope of graphic design was boundless. Journalistic, imaginative and manipulative photography were revolutionary influences and Matter, long-enamored with the camera, began to experiment with the Rollei as both a design tool and an expressive form—a relationship that never ended. Inspired by the work of El Lissitzky and Man Ray, Matter was intrigued by photograms, as well as the magic of collage and montage - both were favored modes. In 1929, his entry into graphic design was completed when he was hired as a designer and photographer for the legendary Deberny and Peignot concern. There he learned the nuances of fine typography, while he assisted A.M. Cassandre and Le Corbusier.

In 1932, abruptly expelled from France for not having the proper papers, he returned from Switzerland to follow his own destiny."Herbert's background is fascinating and enviable," says another design-legend Paul Rand. "He was surrounded by good graphics and learned from the best." Therefore, it is no wonder that the famed posters designed for the Swiss Tourist Office soon after his return had the beauty and intensity of Cassandre and the geometric perfection of Corbusier, wed to a very distinctive personal vision.

In 1936, Matter was offered roundtrip passage to the United States as payment for his work with a Swiss ballet troupe. He spoke little English, yet traveled across the United States. When the tour was over, he decided to remain in New York. At the urging of a friend who worked at the Museum of Modern Art, Matter went to see Alexey Brodovitch, who had been collecting the Swiss travel posters (two of which were hanging on Brodovitch's studio wall). Matter soon began taking photographs for Harper's Bazaar and Saks Fifth Avenue. Later, he affiliated himself with a photographic studio, "Studio Associates," located near the Condeé Nast offices, where he produced many of his finest works.

During World War II, Matter made striking posters for Container Corporation of America. In 1944, he became the design consultant at Knoll, molding its graphic identity for over 12 years. As Alvin Eisenman, head of the Design Department at Yale and long-time friend, points out: "Herbert had a strong feeling for minute details and this was exemplified by the distinguished typography he did for the Knoll catalogues."

In 1952, he was asked by Eisenman to join the Yale faculty as professor of photography and graphic design. "He was a marvelous teacher," say Eisenman. "His roster of students included some of the most important names in the field today." At Yale, he tried his hand at architecture, designing studio space in buildings designed by Louis Kahn and Paul Rudolf. "He was good at everything he tried to do," continues Eisenman. In 1954, he was commissioned to create the corporate identity for the New Haven Railroad. The ubiquitous "NH" logo, with its elongated serifs, was one of the most identifiable symbols in America. Affinity for modern, avant-garde and nonobjective art was always evident, not only in Matter's own work, but in his closest friendships.

In 1944, he was asked by the Museum of Modern Art to direct a movie on the sculpture of his intimate friend and neighbor, Alexander Calder. It was his first cinematic attempt, yet because of the sympathetic and deep understanding that only one kindred artist can have for another, the completed film was one of the finest in its genre. From 1958 to 1968, he was the design consultant for the Guggenheim Museum, applying his elegant typographic style to its posters and catalogues many of which are still in print. He worked in Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney's former studio in McDougal Alley with his wife, Mercedes Matter, who founded the famed Studio School just around the corner. During the late Fifties and early Sixties, he was an intimate participant in the New York art scene, counting Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline and Philip Guston as friends and confidants. In 1960, he started photographing the sculpture of Alberto Giacometti, another spiritual intimate, for a comprehensive book, a project on which Matter worked for 25 years and that got published posthumously.

The first major retrospective of his work was an exhibition in 1978 at Yale University, School of Art. In the same year the Kunsthaus in Zurich honored Matter with an exhibition of his work from the 1930s. In 1980 Matter received a Guggenheim Fellowship for Photography, and was named Honorary Royal Designer for Industry from the members of the Royal Designers in England in 1982. The American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) awarded Matter its Gold Medal in 1983.

(from a text by Steven Heller and David R. Brown - used with permission.)

Timeline

1907 Born April 25, in Engelberg, Switzerland.

1925-1927 Studied painting at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Geneva.

1928-1929 Studied with Fernand Léger and Amédée Ozenfant at Académie Moderne, Paris.

1929-1932 Worked with A.M. Cassandre on poster design and Le Corbusier on architecture and displays for exhibits in Paris.

1930 Designed family-owned Tea Room in Engelberg, inspired by the Bauhaus.

1932-1935 Sent back to Zurich by french immigration for lack of proper papers. Worked as photographer and designer on brochures and posters for the Swiss Tourist Office using the new photomontage technique.

1935 Traveled to the United States in December photographed the US tour of dance troupe Trudi Schoop. Decided to stay in New York City.

1936-1938 Worked as freelance photographer at Harper's Bazaar for art director Alexey Brodovitch.

1939 Appointed designer for the Swiss National Pavilion in collaboration with Swiss architect William Lescaze, for the 1939 World's Fair in New York.

1941 Marriage to Mercedes Carles. Started working on posters and advertisements for the Container Corporation of America (CCA).

1942 Son Alexander Matter born.

1943 First one-man exhibition of photography, Pierre Matisse Gallery, NY

1943-1946 Worked with Charles and Ray Eames in Venice, California.

Designed covers and layouts for John Entenza's arts & architecture magazine.

1946 Returned to New York. Began twenty-year relationship with furniture company Knoll Associates as design- and advertising consultant.

1946-1957 Worked as staff photographer for Condé Nast Publications.

1948 Designed In and Out of Focus, photography exhibition for the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Matter's work included in the show.

1949-1950 Directed, filmed and edited The Works of Calder for the Museum of Modern Art, the first color film about Alexander Calder. Featuring Calder, Alex Matter and a film-score composed by John Cage.

1950-1955 Collaborated, filmed and edited black and white dance films The Spirit Moves and Dancing with Mura Dehn.

1951-1960 Appointed visiting critic in photography, Yale University, School of Art and Architecture, New Haven, CT by Alvin Eisenman.

1952-1955 Appointed design consultant to the New Haven Railroad (NHRR). Created comprehensive design program and corporate identity.

1953-1968 Appointed design consultant to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Responsible for publications and signage.

1955 Created symbol and styling design program for the Boston and Maine Railroad.

Completed design for the photo mural History of Writing for Marcel Breuer designed public library, Grosse Pointe, MI.

Honored by membership in the prestigious Alliance Graphique Internationale (AGI), Zürich/Switzerland.

1958 Designed mural for the fifth floor reception of the Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed Seagram building in New York.

1960-1979 Developed photographic essay on the works of Alberto Giacometti.

1961-1967 Design consultant to the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX.

1961-1976 Appointed Professor of Graphic Design, Yale University, School of Art and Architecture,

1962 Comprehensive exhibition of Matter's photography and graphic design work at the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA), NY.

1968 Produced and directed ten 30 minute educational films titled the World Games on R. Buckminster Fuller.

1976 Appointed Professor Emeritus of Graphic Design and Photography, Yale University, School of Art and Architecture.

1977 Elected to Art Director's Club of New York, Hall of Fame.

1978 Exhibition, Herbert Matter - a retrospective, Yale University, Art and Architecture gallery.

Exhibition of photography, Kunsthaus Zürich, Switzerland.

1982 Elected Royal Designer to Industry, by Royal Society of Designers to Industry, London, England.

1983 Received American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) Gold Medal for Life Achievement.

1984 Died of cancer on May 8., Southampton, Long Island, NY.

1986 Publication of book Alberto Giacometti based on Matter's extensive specifications and design.

1988 Exhibition of Matter's early European work, Kunsthaus Zürich, Switzerland. Release of book Sehformen der Zeit on the same topic.

1991 Exhibition The Graphic Design of Herbert Matter, Museum of Modern Art, NY

2001 Mercedes Matter died, December 4., Easthampton, Long Island, NY

2005 Exhibition Herbert Matter, Modernist Photography and Graphic Design at Stanford Uiversity Libraries, CA.

2007 Pollock Matters, Exhibition at McMullen Museum of Art Boston College, MA.

2010 Release of documentary film "The Visual Language of Herbert Matter".

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